Dyslexia is an inherited pattern of cognitive strengths & weaknesses. The strengths are in complex thinking (often hands-on/3D visual-spatial), & the weaknesses are in automatic sound-language processing (usually internalizing, storing, & rapidly retrieving sound-text info). The processing weaknesses interfere with reading & writing (& sometimes math), but give strengths in high-level thinking – the student can think in ways others cannot, at the expense of difficulty processing text automatically & efficiently.
Dyslexia is difficulty reading words fluently & accurately – it typically involves difficulty with auditory-sound &/or rapid processing-retrieval of specific sounds, symbols, & words. Many US schools teach phonological skills so well that those are wired in, but processing deficits remain. Appropriate instruction builds & reinforces brain connections for reading.